Basic and pre-clinical research

Ritov G, Richter-Levin, G. (2017) Pre-trauma Methylphenidate in rats reduces PTSD-like reactions one month later. Translational Psychiatry, 7(1):e1000.

Saha R, Knapp S, Chakraborty D, Horovitz O, Albrecht A, Kriebel M, Kaphzan H, Ehrlich I, Volkmer H, Richter-Levin, G. (2016) GABAergic Synapses at the Axon Initial Segment of Basolateral Amygdala Projection Neurons Modulate Fear Extinction. Neuropsychopharmacology, 42(2):473-484.

Beuter S, Ardi Z, Horovitz O, Wuchter J, Keller S, Saha R, Tripathi K, Anunu R, Kehat O, Kriebel M, Richter-Levin, G, Volkmer H. (2016) Receptor tyrosine kinase EphA7 is required for interneuron connectivity at specific subcellular compartments of granule cells. Scientific Reports, 6:29710.

Hadad-Ophir O, Ardi Z, Brande-Eilat N, Kehat O, Anunu R, Richter-Levin, G. (2016) Exposure to prolonged controllable or uncontrollable stress affects GABAergic function in sub-regions of the hippocampus and the amygdala. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, S1074-7427(16)30084-3.

Albrecht A, Ivens S, Papageorgiou IE, Çalışkan G, Saiepour N, Brück W, Richter-Levin, G, Heinemann U, Stork O. (2016) Shifts in excitatory/inhibitory balance by juvenile stress: A role for neuron-astrocyte interaction in the dentate gyrus. Glia, 64(6):911-22.

Ardi Z, Albrecht A, Richter-Levin A, Saha R, Richter-Levin, G. (2016) Behavioral profiling as a translational approach in an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Neurobiology of Disease, 88:139-147.

Hadad-Ophir O, Brande-Eilat N, Richter-Levin, G. (2016) Differential Effects of Controllable Stress Exposure on Subsequent Extinction Learning in Adult Rats. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 9:366.

Ritov G, Boltyansky B, Richter-Levin, G. (2016) A novel approach to PTSD modeling in rats reveals alternating patterns of limbic activity in different types of stress reaction. Molecular Psychiatry, 21(5):630-41.

Desmedt A, Marighetto A, Richter-Levin, G, Calandreau L. (2015) Adaptive emotional memory: the key hippocampal-amygdalar interaction. Stress, 18(3):297-308.

Shan LL, Guo H, Song NN, jia Z, Hu X, Huang JF, Ding YQ, Richter Levin G, Zhou QX, Xu L (2015) Light exposure before learning improves memory consolidation at night. Scientific Reports, 5:15578.

Jing L, Duan TT, Tian M, Yuan Q, Tan JW, Zhu YY, Ding ZY, Cao J, Yang Y, Zhang X, Mao RR, Zhou QX, Richter Levin G, Xu L (2015) Despair-associated memory requires a slow-onset CA1 long-term potentiation with unique underlying mechanisms. Scientific Reports, 5:15000.

Sharvit A, Segal M, Kehat O, Stork O, Richter-Levin, G. (2015) Differential modulation of synaptic plasticity and local circuit activity in the dentate gyrus and CA1 regions of the rat hippocampus by corticosterone. Stress, 18(3):319-27.

Horovitz O, Richter-Levin, G. (2015) Dorsal periaqueductal gray simultaneously modulates ventral subiculum induced-plasticity in the basolateral amygdala and the nucleus accumbens. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 9:53.

Gruber D, Gilling KE, Albrecht A, Bartsch JC, Çalışkan G, Richter-Levin, G, Stork O, Heinemann U, Behr J. (2015) 5-HT receptor-mediated modulation of granule cell inhibition after juvenile stress recovers after a second exposure to adult stress. Neuroscience, 293:67-79.

Çalışkan G, Albrecht A, Hollnagel JO, Rösler A, Richter-Levin, G, Heinemann U, Stork O. (2015) Long-term changes in the CA3 associative network of fear-conditioned mice. Stress, 18(2):188-97.

Grigoryan G, Ardi Z, Albrecht A, Richter-Levin, G, Segal M. (2015) Juvenile stress alters LTP in ventral hippocampal slices: Involvement of noradrenergic mechanisms. Behavioral Brain research, 278:559-62.

Zitman FM, Lucas M, Trinks S, Grosse-Ophoff L, Kriebel M, Volkmer H, Richter-Levin, G. (2014) Dentate Gyrus Local Circuit is implicated in Learning Under Stress-a Role for Neurofascin. Molecular Neurobiology, 1-9.

Müller I, Obata K, Richter-Levin, G, Stork O. (2014) GAD65 haplodeficiency conveys resilience in animal models of stress-induced psychopathology. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8:265.

Lucas M, Ilin Y, Anunu R, Kehat O, Xu L, Desmedt A, Richter-Levin, G. (2014) Long-term effects of controllability or the lack of it on coping abilities and stress resilience in the rat. Stress, 17(5):423-30.

Sood R, Ritov G, Boltyansky B, Spector-Chotiner A, Richter-Levin, G, Barki-Harrington L. (2014) Underwater trauma causes a long-term specific increase in the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the ventral CA1 of the hippocampus. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 49:62-8.

Ritov G, Ardi Z, Richter-Levin, G. (2014) Differential activation of amygdala, dorsal and ventral hippocampus following an exposure to a reminder of underwater trauma. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8:18.

Segev A, Rubin AS, Abush H, Richter-Levin, G, Akirav I. (2014) Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Prevents the Effects of Chronic Mild Stress on Emotional Learning and LTP in a Rat Model of Depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(4):919-33.

Ardi Z, Ritov G, Lucas M, Richter-Levin, G. (2014) The effects of a reminder of underwater trauma on behavior and memory-related mechanisms in the rat dentate gyrus. International Journal of NeuroPsychoPharmacology, 17(4):571-80.

Horovitz O, Tsoory MM, Yovell Y, Richter-Levin, G. (2014) A rat model of pre-puberty (Juvenile) stress-induced predisposition to stress-related disorders: Sex similarities and sex differences in effects and symptoms. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 15(1):36-48.

Bergado-Acosta JR, Müller I, Richter-Levin, G, Stork O. (2014) The GABA-synthetic enzyme GAD65 controls circadian activation of conditioned fear pathways. Behavioral Brain Research, 260:92-100.

Hadad-Ophir O, Albrecht A, Stork O, Richter-Levin, G. (2014) Amygdala activation and GABAergic gene expression in hippocampal sub-regions at the interplay of stress and spatial learning. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 21;8:3.

Ritov G, Richter-Levin, G. (2014) Water associated zero maze: a novel rat test for long term traumatic re-experiencing. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 17;8:1.

Lucas M, Chen A, Richter-Levin, G. (2013) Hypothalamic Corticotropin-Releasing Factor is Centrally Involved in Learning Under Moderate Stress. Neuropsychopharmacology, 38(9):1825-32.

Li Z, Richter-Levin, G. (2013) Priming stimulation of basal but not lateral amygdala affects long-term potentiation in the rat dentate gyrus in vivo. Neuroscience, 246:13-21.

Vouimba RM, Richter-Levin, G. (2013) Different patterns of amygdala priming differentially affect dentate gyrus plasticity and corticosterone, but not CA1 plasticity. Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 7:80.

Zitman FM, Richter-Levin, G. (2013) Age and sex-dependent differences in activity, plasticity and response to stress in the dentate gyrus. Neuroscience, 249:21-30.

Kim EJ, Horovitz O, Pellman BA, Tan LM, Li Q, Richter-Levin, G, Kim JJ. (2013) Dorsal periaqueductal gray-amygdala pathway conveys both innate and learned fear responses in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 110(36):14795-800.

Kavushansky A, Kritman M, Maroun M, Klein E, Richter-Levin, G, Hui KS, Ben-Shachar D. (2013) β-endorphin degradation and the individual reactivity to traumatic stress. European Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 23(12):1779-88.

Sood R, Ritov G, Richter-Levin, G, Barki-Harrington L. (2012) Selective increase in the association of the β2 adrenergic receptor, β Arrestin-1 and p53 with Mdm2 in the ventral hippocampus one month after underwater trauma. Behavioral Brain Research, 240:26-8.

Horovitz, O., Tsoory, M.M., Hall, J. Jacobson - Pick, S. and Richter-Levin, G. (2012) Post-weaning - pre-pubertal ('juvenile') stress: a model of induced predisposition to stress-related disorders. Neuroendocrinology, 95:56–64.

Li Z, Richter-Levin, G. (2012) Stimulus intensity-dependent modulations of hippocampal long-term potentiation by basolateral amygdala priming. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 2012;6:21.

Jacobson-Pick S, Richter-Levin, G. (2012) Short- and long-term effects of juvenile stressor exposure on the expression of GABA(A) receptor subunits in rats. Stress, 15(4):416-24.

Ricon T, Toth E, Leshem M, Braun K, Richter-Levin, G. (2011) Unpredictable chronic stress in juvenile or adult rats has opposite effects, respectively, promoting and impairing resilience. Stress, 15(1):11-20.

Kogan I, Richter-Levin, G. (2010) Emotional memory formation under lower versus higher stress conditions. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 4:183.

Jacobson-Pick S, Richter-Levin, G. (2010) Differential impact of juvenile stress and corticosterone in juvenility and in adulthood, in male and female rats. Behavioral Brain Research, 214(2):268-76.

Richter-Levin, G., Maroun M. (2010) Stress and amygdala suppression of metaplasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 20(10):2433-41.

Segal M., Richter-Levin, G., Maggio N. (2010) Stress-induced dynamic routing of hippocampal connectivity: A hypothesis. Hippocampus, 20(12):1332-8.

Tsoory MM, Guterman A, Richter-Levin, G. (2010) "Juvenile stress" alters maturation-related changes in expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 in the limbic system: relevance for stress-related psychopathologies. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 88(2):369-80.

Kavushansky A, Ben-Shachar D, Richter-Levin, G., Klein E. (2009) Physical stress differs from psychosocial stress in the pattern and time-course of behavioral responses, serum corticosterone and expression of plasticity-related genes in the rat. Stress, 12(5):412-25.

Bazak N, Kozlovsky N, Kaplan Z, Matar M, Golan H, Zohar J, Richter-Levin, G, Cohen H. (2009) Pre-pubertal stress exposure affects adult behavioral response in association with changes in circulating corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(6):844-58.

Ilin Y., Richter-Levin, G. (2009) ERK2 and CREB activation in the amygdala when an event is remembered as fearful and not when it is remembered as instructive. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 87(8):1823-31.

Ilin Y., Richter-Levin, G. (2009) Enriched environment experience overcomes learning deficits and depressive-like behavior induced by juvenile stress. PLoS ONE, 4(1):e4329.

Toth E, Gersner R, Wilf-Yarkoni A, Raizel H, Dar D, Richter-Levin, G., Levit O, Zangen A. (2008) Age-Dependent Effects of Chronic Stress on Brain Plasticity and Depressive Behavior. Journal of Neurochemistry, 107(2):522-32.

Cohen H, Liberzon I, Richter-Levin, G. (2008) Exposure to extreme stress impairs contextual odour discrimination in an animal model of PTSD. International Journal of NeuroPsychoPharmacology, 13:1-13.

Toth E, Avital A, Leshem M, Richter-Levin, G., Braun K. (2008) Neonatal and juvenile stress induces changes in adult social behavior without affecting cognitive function. Behavioral Brain Research, 190(1):135-9.

Jacobson-Pick S, Elkobi A, Vander S, Rosenblum K, Richter-Levin, G. (2008) Juvenile stress-induced alteration of maturation of the GABAA receptor alpha subunit in the rat. International Journal of NeuroPsychoPharmacology, 25:1-13.

Kogan I, Richter-Levin, G. (2008) Activation pattern of the limbic system following spatial learning under stress. European Journal of Neuroscience, 2008 27(3):715-22.

Yarom O, Maroun M, Richter-Levin, G. (2008) Exposure to forced swim stress alters local circuit activity and plasticity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Neural Plasticity, 2008:194097.

Tsoory M, Guterman A, Richter-Levin, G. (2008) Exposure to Stressors during Juvenility Disrupts Development-Related Alterations in the PSA-NCAM to NCAM Expression Ratio: Potential Relevance for Mood and Anxiety Disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33(2):378-93.

Cohen H, Kaplan Z, Matar MA, Loewenthal U, Zohar J, Richter-Levin, G. (2007) Long-lasting behavioral effects of juvenile trauma in an animal model of PTSD associated with a failure of the autonomic nervous system to recover. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 17(6-7):464-77.

Vouimba RM, Yaniv D, Richter-Levin, G. (2007) Glucocorticoid receptors and beta-adrenoceptors in basolateral amygdala modulate synaptic plasticity in hippocampal dentate gyrus, but not in area CA1. Neuropharmacology, 52(1):244-52.

Tsoory M, Cohen H, Richter-Levin, G. (2007) Juvenile stress induces a predisposition to either anxiety or depressive-like symptoms following stress in adulthood. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 17(4):245-56.

Kavushansky A, Richter-Levin, G. (2006) Effects of stress and corticosterone on activity and plasticity in the amygdala. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 84(7):1580-7.

Avital A, Segal M, Richter-Levin, G. (2006) Contrasting roles of corticosteroid receptors in hippocampal plasticity. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(36):9130-4.

Tzoory m, Richter-Levin, G, (2006) Learning under stress in the adult rat is differentially affected by "Juvenile" or "Adolescent" stress. International Journal of NeuroPsychoPharmacology, 9(6):713-28.

Zelcer, I., Cohen, H., Richter-Levin, G., Lebison, T., Grossberger, T., Barkai, E., (2006) A Cellular Mechanism For Learning-Induced Metaplasticity In The Hippocampus. Cereb Cortex, 16(4):460-8.

Avital A, Ram E, Maayan R, Weizman A, Richter-Levin, G., (2006) Effects of early-life stress on behavior and neurosteroid levels in the rat hypothalamus and entorhinal cortex. Brain Research Bulletin, 68(6):419-24.

Kavushansky A, Vouimba RM, Cohen H, Richter-Levin, G., (2006) Activity and plasticity in the CA1, the dentate gyrus and the amygdala following controllable vs. uncontrollable water stress, Hippocampus. 16(1):35-42.

Vouimba RM, Richter-Levin, G., (2005) Physiological Dissociation in Hippocampal Subregions in Response to Amygdala Stimulation. Cereb Cortex, 15(11):1815-21.

Avital A., and Richter-Levin, G. (2005) Exposure to juvenile stress exacerbates the behavioral consequences of exposure to stress in the adult rat. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 8(02): 163-173.

Cohen H, Zohar J, Matar A.M, Zeev K, Loewenthal U, Richter-Levin, G. (2004) Setting apart the affected: The use of behavioral criteria in animal models of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29(11):1962-70.

Vouimba, R.M., Yaniv, D., Diamond, D., and Richter-Levin, G., (2004) Effects of inescapable stress on LTP in the amygdala versus the dentate gyrus of freely behaving rats. European Journal of Neuroscience, 19(7):1887-94.

Akirav, I., Kozeniky, M., Tal, D., Sandi, C., Venero, C., and Richter-Levin, G., (2004) A facilitative role for corticosterone in the acquisition of a spatial task under moderate stress. Learning & Memory, 11(2):188-95.

O'Connor, V., Genin, A., Davis, S., Karishma, K.K., Doyere, V., De Zeeuw, C.I., Sanger, G., Hunt, S.P., Richter-Levin, G., Mallet, J., Laroche, S., Bliss, T.V., French, P.J., (2004) Differential amplification of intron containing transcripts reveals LTP-associated upregulation of specific Pde10A phosphodiesterase splice variants. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 279(16):15841-9.

Avital A, Goshen I, Kamsler A, Segal M, Iverfeldt K, Richter-Levin, G., Yirmiya R. (2003) Impaired interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling is associated with defects in neural plasticity and memory processes. Hippocampus, 13(7):826-34.

Yaniv, D., Vouimba, R.M., Diamond M.D., Richter-Levin, G., (2003) Entorhinal Cortex Stimulation Recruits Different Mechanisms for the Simultaneous Induction of Late Phase LTP in Hippocampus and Amygdala, In Vivo. Neuroscience, 120(4):1125-35.

Eyre, M., Richter-Levin, G., Avital, A., and Stewart, M.G., (2003) Morphological changes in hippocampal synapses following spatial learning in rats are transient. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17(9):1973-80.

Maroun, M. and Richter-Levin, G., (2003) Exposure to Acute Stress Blocks the Induction of Long Term Potentiation of the Amygdala-Prefrontal Cortex Pathway In Vivo. Journal of Neuroscience, 23(11):4406-9.

Genin, A., French, P., Doyere, V., Davis, S., Errington, M.L., Maroun, M., Stean, T., Truchet, B., Webber, M., Wills, T., Richter-Levin, G., Sanger, G., Hunt, S.P., Mallet, J., Laroche, S., Bliss, T.V., O'Connor, V. (2003) LTP but not seizure is associated with up-regulation of AKAP-150. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17(2):331-340.

Akirav, I. and Richter-Levin, G., (2002) Mechanisms of amygdala modulation of hippocampal plasticity. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(22):9912-21.

Maroun, M. and Richter-Levin, G., (2002) Local circuit plasticity in the rat dentate gyrus – characterization and aging related impairment. Neuroscience, 112(4):1001-7.

Avital, A., Richter-Levin, G., Leschiner, S., Spanier, I., Veenman, L., Weizman, L., and Gavish, M., (2001) Acute and Repeated Swim Stress Effects on Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptors in the Rat Hippocampus, Adrenal, and Kidney. Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(5): 669-678.

Yaniv, D., Schafe, G.E., LeDoux, J.E. and Richter-Levin, G., (2001) A Gradient of Plasticity in the Amygdala Revealed by Cortical and Subcortical Stimulation, in-vivo. Neuroscience, 106(3): 613-20.

Akirav, I., Sandi, C. And Richter-Levin, G., (2001) Differential activation of hippocampus and amygdala following spatial learning under stress. European Journal of Neuroscience, 14(4):719-25.

Richter-Levin, G. and Akirav I., (2000) Amygdala-Hippocampus dynamic interactions in relation to memory. Molecular Neurobiology, 22(1-3): 11-20.

Stewart, M.G., Harrison, E., Rusakov, D.A., Richter-Levin, G. and Maroun, M (2000) Re-structuring of synapses 24 hours after induction of LTP in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus in vivo. Neuroscience, 100(2): 221-227.

Wang, J., Akirav, I. and Richter-Levin, G., (2000) Short-term behavioral and electrophysiological consequences of underwater trauma. Physiology and Behavior, 70: 327-332.

Yaniv, D. and Richter-Levin, G., (2000) LTP in the basal amygdala induced by perirhinal cortex stimulation, in vivo. Neuroreport, 11(3): 525-530.

Akirav, I. and Richter-Levin, G., (1999) Behavioral stress and basolateral amygdala bi-phasic modulation of hippocmpal synaptic plasticity in the rat. Journal of Neuroscience, 19(23): 10530-10535.

Rosenblum, K., Maroun, M. and Richter-Levin, G., (1999) Frequency-dependent inhibition in the dentate gyrus is attenuated by the NMDA receptor blocker MK-801 at doses which do not yet affect long-term potentiation. Hippocampus, 9: 491-494.

Akirav, I. and Richter-Levin, G., (1999) Priming stimulation in the basolateral amygdala modulates synaptic plasticity in the rat dentate gyrus. Neurocsience Letters, 270:83-86.

Hevroni, D., Rattner, A., Bundman, M., Lederfein, D., Gbara, A., Mangelus, M., Silverman, M. A., Kedar, H., Naor, C., Kornuc, M., Theill, L. E., Nedivi, E., Richter-Levin, G., Citri, Y. (1998) Hippocampal plasticity involves extensive gene induction and multiple cellular mechanisms. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 10:75-98.

Richter-Levin, G. (1998) Acute and long-term behavioral correlates of under-water trauma - potential relevance to stress and post-stress syndroms. Psychiatry Research, 79(1):73-83.

Richter-Levin, G., Thomas, K. L., Hunt, S.P. and Bliss, T. V. P. (1998) Dissociation between genes activated in long-term potentiation and in spatial learning in the rat. Neuroscience Letters, 251(1): 41-44.

Richter-Levin, G., Canevari L. and Bliss, T. V. P. (1998) Spatial training and high-frequency stimulation engage a common pathway to enhance glutamate release in the hippocampus. Learning & Memory, 4(6):445-450.

Rusakov, D. A., Davies, H. A., Harrison, E., Diana, G., Richter-Levin, G., Bliss, T. V. P., Stewart, M. G. (1997) Ultrastructural synaptic correlates of spatial learning in rat hippocampus. Neuroscience, 80(1):69-77.

Rusakov, D. A., Richter-Levin, G., Stewart, M. G. and Bliss, T. V. P. (1997) Reduction in spine density associated with LTP in the dentate gyrus suggests a spine-fusion model of potentiation. Hippocampus, 7:489-500.

Rosenblum, K., Dudai, Y. and Richter-Levin, G. (1996) Long-term potentiation increases tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B in rat dentate gyrus in vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (USA), 93(19):10457-10460.

Errington, M. L., Bliss, T. V. P., Richter-Levin, G., Yenk, K., Doyere, V. and Laroche, S. (1995) Stimulation at 1-5 Hz Does not produce Long-term depression or depotentiation ofthe adult rat in vivo. Journal of Neurophysiology, 74, 1793-1799.

Rusakov, D. A., Stewart, M. G., Soka, M., Richter-Levin, G. and Bliss, T. V. P. (1995) Dendritic spines form "collars" in hippocampal granule cells. Neuroreport, 6:1557-1561.

Holscher, C., Canevari, L., and Richter-Levin, G. (1995) Inhibitors of PLA2 and NO synthase act senergistically in producing amnestic effects on spatial learning in the rat. Neuroreport, 6:730-732.

Richter-Levin, G., Canevari L. and Bliss, T. V. P. (1994) Long-term potentiation and glutamate release: Links to spatial learning. Behavioral Brain Research, 66:37-40.

Canevari, L., Richter-Levin, G., and Bliss, T.V.P. (1994) LTP in the dentate gyrus is associated with a lasting and NMDA-dependent enhancement of synaptosomal glutamate release in the dentate gyrus. Brain Research, 667:115-117.

Richter-Levin, G., Acsady, L., Freund, T.F. and Segal, M. (1994) Differential effects of serotonin and raphe grafts in the hippocampus and hypothalamus: A combined behavioral and anatomical study. European Journal of Neuroscience, 6:1720-1728.

Levkovitz, Y., Richter-Levin, G. and Segal, M (1994) The effect of 5-hydroxytryptophane (5-HTP) on behavior and hippocampal physiology in young and old rats. Neurobiology of Aging, 15:635-641.

Richter-Levin, G., Errington, M. L., Maegawa, H. and Bliss, T. V. P. (1994) Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors is necessary for long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus and for spatial learning. Neuropharmacology, 33:853-857.

Richter-Levin, G., Greenberger, V. and Segal, M. (1994) The effects of general and restricted serotonergic lesions on hippocampal electrophysiology and behavior. Brain Research, 642(1/2):111-116.

Richter-Levin, G., Greenberger, V. and Segal, M. (1993) Regional specificity of raphe graft- induced recovery of behavioral functions impaired by combined serotonergic/cholinergic lesions. Experimental Neurology, 121(2):256-260.

Richter-Levin, G., Markram H. and Segal, M. (1992) Spontaneous recovery of deficits in spatial memory and in cholinergic potentiation of NMDA in CA1 neurons, during chronic lithium treatment. Hippocampus, 2(3):279-286.

Richter-Levin, G. and Segal, M. (1992) Raphe grafts in the hippocampus, but not in the entorhinal cortex, reverse hyperexcitability in serotonin-depleted rats and their responsivenessto the serotonin releasing drug - fenfluramine. Developmental Neuroscience, 14(2):166-172.

Richter-Levin, G. and Segal, M. (1991) Restoration of serotonergic innervation underlies the behavioral effects of raphe grafts. Brain Research, 566:21-25.

Richter-Levin, G. and Segal, M. (1991) The effects of serotonin depletion and raphe grafts on hippocampal electrophysiology and behavior. Journal of Neuroscience, 11(6):1585-1596.

Richter-Levin, G., Segal, M. and Sara, S. (1991) An alpha2 antagonist, idazoxan, enhances EPSP-spike coupling in the rat dentate gyrus. Brain Research, 540: 291-294.

Richter-Levin, G. and Segal, M. (1990) Grafting of midbrain neurons into the hippocampus restores serotonergic modulation of hippocampal activity in the rat. Brain Research, 521:1-6.

Richter-Levin, G. and Segal, M. (1990) Effects of serotonin releasers on dentate granule cell excitability in the rat. Experimental Brain Research, 82:199-207.

Richter-Levin, G. and Segal, M. (1989) Raphe cells grafted into the hippocampus can ameliorate spatial memory deficits in rats withcombined serotonergic/cholinergic deficiencies. Brain Research, 478(1):184-186.

Richter-Levin, G. and Segal, M. (1989) Spatial performance is severely impaired in rats with combined reduction of serotonergic and cholinergic transmission. Brain Research, 477 (1/2):404-407.

Richter-Levin, G. and Segal, M. (1988) Serotonin releasers modulate reactivity of the rat hippocampus to afferent stimulation. Neuroscience Letters, 94:173-176.